The 9th annual World Congress on the Prevention of Diabetes and its Complications (WCPD) will take place from December 2-4 at the Georgia World Congress Center in Atlanta. Our team is looking extremely forward to attending the WCPD this year, as the meeting will feature 75 speakers from around the globe, including prevention expert Dr. Jaakko Tuomilehto (University of Helsinki, Finland) on glycemic variability as a risk factor for CV events, Dr. John Buse (University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC) on drugs for diabetes prevention, Dr. Simon Heller (University of Sheffield, UK) on potential standardizations for our definitions of hypoglycemia, and so many more. The agenda promises engaging sessions dedicated to a range of key topics in diabetes – cardiovascular disease, retinopathy, type 1 prevention, and the global obesity epidemic, to name a few. We dive into these sessions in much greater detail below. You can now register for WCPD 2016 by November 30 (based on the packed agenda, this truly seems like a can’t-miss meeting for those involved in diabetes prevention and obesity), peruse the conference website for additional information, and check out other attractions in Atlanta while you’re there.
This conference preview elaborates on the presentations and symposia planned for WCPD 2016, highlighting the speakers and content and that we’re most looking forward to. We do hope to see you in Atlanta come early-December; let us know if you’ll be attending, too as we would like to put together a dinner for those working on public health issues related to the agenda.
Friday, December 2
- (1:30-3:30 pm) Prevention Through the Use of the AACE Algorithm and Guidelines. The conference kicks-off with this AACE-sponsored symposium on how prevention should fit into optimal diabetes management. Dr. Sandra Weber (Greenville Memorial Hospital, SC) will deliver introductory remarks, and Dr. Alan Garber (Harvard University, Boston, MA) will follow with a talk on lifestyle interventions and prediabetes algorithms – these were newly added to the AACE/ACE 2016 guidelines and Dr. Garber has previously characterized their inclusion as an effort to be more prescriptive (as it is with pharmacotherapy recommendations) rather than “assuming everyone knows something about lifestyle.” Drs. Kitty Wyne (Ohio State, Columbus, OH) and Timothy Garvey (University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL) will round out the symposium with discussions of lipid and obesity guidelines, respectively, as they relate to the prevention of type 2 diabetes. We’re particularly keen to hear Dr. Garvey’s talk, as he is known for being a very strong HCP and patient advocate of obesity management. For example, at AACE 2016 this past May, he spoke once to the need for a patient-centered approach to obesity care and a second time on AACE comprehensive guidelines for obesity – and also because he’s been a proponent of better payer coverage for prediabetes drugs. We’re happy to see organizations like AACE dedicating more attention to diabetes prevention. We need more advocacy for pharmacological and non-pharmacological prediabetes interventions, and we expect that this opening session to WCPD will feature four powerful voices on this.
- (4:30-5:00 pm) Keynote: Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study (DPPOS). Highly respected Dr. David Nathan (Harvard University, Boston, MA) will speak first in a series of four keynote lectures, exploring what we’ve learned so far from the 25-center Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study (DPPOS). This trial investigates the ability of lifestyle modifications as well as metformin therapy to delay the onset of type 2 diabetes, evaluating both short-term benefits (with a mean 10 years of follow-up) as well as longer-term effects on microvascular and cardiovascular outcomes. We appreciate the need for evidence-based approaches to diabetes prevention, and we’re eager to see what results Dr. Nathan will highlight at WCPD. We hope he’ll also touch on practical ways to translate these findings into real-world practice.
- (5:00-5:30 pm) Keynote: Pharmaceutical Interventions for Diabetes Prevention. The always-eloquent Dr. John Buse (University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC) will deliver a keynote lecture on how drugs can and should be utilized in diabetes prevention. We expect he’ll discuss opportunities for the use of metformin in prediabetes, and will touch upon the possibility for other diabetes drugs to be prescribed to people with prediabetes, particularly those agents with a pronounced weight loss benefit such as SGLT-2 inhibitors and GLP-1 agonists. We also expect Dr. Buse will address the promising diabetes prevention data from the IRIS trial for TZD pioglitazone. Dr. Buse has spoken on a variety of topics at recent conferences, but perhaps most relevant to WCPD is his participation at the National Academy of Medicine’s annual meeting, where he was on a panel dedicated to obesity management as a factor in diabetes prevention as well as the delay of diabetes complications. We are very intrigued by the possibility of prediabetes drugs and can’t wait for Dr. Buse’s take on the various options and limitations (how will we get the FDA to approve prediabetes indications?) – this is sure to be a highlight of the meeting.
- (5:30-6:00 pm) Keynote: Metabolic Basis of CVD Prevention. Dr. Robert Eckel (University of Denver, CO) will explore the physiology of cardiovascular disease prevention. With so much buzz surrounding cardiovascular outcomes trials (CVOTs) of late, there is no shortage of conversation on how advanced therapies, currently only evaluated in patients with existing cardiovascular disease, can prevent or delay cardiovascular (CV) complications of diabetes – and no shortage of questions on the mechanisms at play behind unexpected cardioprotective findings in trials such as the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial for Lilly/BI’s Jardiance (empagliflozin). Dr. Eckel has been quite insightful on this topic in the past, as recently as at CMHC 2016, where he pointed out the lack of satisfactory guidelines for the management of CV risks in type 1 diabetes. His keynote lecture will zoom in on the metabolic underpinnings of CV prevention, and we anticipate he’ll mention how this metabolic biology relates to cardioprotective drugs and guidelines for CV risk reduction in people with diabetes. Dr. Eckel’s presentation is bound to be full of valuable learnings for anyone in this field.
- (6:00-6:30 pm) Keynote: The Liver as a Target Organ for Understanding Diabetes. Dr. Darin Olsen (Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Decatur, GA) will shift focus to the liver and its role in type 1 and 2 diabetes. The liver is, of course, part of Dr. Ralph DeFronzo’s (University of Texas, San Antonio, TX) “ominous octet” for diabetes, with increased hepatic glucose production contributing to hyperglycemia. We’re curious to see how Dr. Olsen balances the liver with the other organs implicated in diabetes (especially the pancreas, as we’ve heard recent commentary in favor of a more beta-centric view of diabetes treatment). We’re also interested to hear his perspective on the impact of metformin, insulin, and TZDs on the liver and what role these agents should play in a diabetes treatment regimen – in particular, we wonder if he’ll discuss the potential of liver-selective insulins following the high-profile phase 3 failure of Lilly’s basal insulin peglispro.
- (7:00-8:15 pm) Symposium: Chocolate and Human Health. A fun and informative event for your evening! This symposium, sponsored by the Sabri Ülker Food Research Foundation and chaired by the University of Chicago’s Dr. Amy Fischl, will cover the effects of chocolate on cardiometabolic disease prevention and progression, on cognitive function, and on emotional mood. Other speakers include Drs. Mahmound Ibrahim (Center for Diabetes Education, Ann Arbor, MI) and Halit Tanju Besler (Eastern Mediterranean University, Turkey). We sure hope there will be samples (in moderation)!
Saturday, December 3
- (8:00-9:00 am) Diabetic Hypoglycemia: Questions and Controversies. Saturday morning at WCPD will commence with hard-hitting questions on hypoglycemia classification, unawareness, and fear. Organized by the International Hypoglycemia Study Group, this session will feature Drs. Elizabeth Seaquist (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN), Simon Heller (University of Sheffield, UK), Stephanie Amiel (King’s College, London, UK), and Linda Gonder-Frederick (University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA). Dr. Heller is a highly-esteemed hypoglycemia expert. He was a valuable voice at the recent FDA outcomes beyond A1c workshop, where he underscored the harmful effects of even mild hypoglycemia and emphasized that treatment targets should be decided collaboratively between patients and providers. Given this terrific background and expertise, you can bet we’re excited for Dr. Heller’s talk on hypoglycemia classification. We expect he’ll call attention to flaws with the current model for defining hypoglycemia and will argue the benefits of a modified classification system. The highly respected Dr. Amiel will follow with a discussion of hypoglycemia unawareness. Dr. Gonder-Frederick will speak to the consequences of hypoglycemia-related fear and will suggest strategies to mitigate this fear.
- (9:30-11:30 am) State of the Art Lectures. In this session, we’re particularly looking forward to a presentation by Dr. Peter Gaede (University of Copenhagen, Denmark) on the Steno-2 trial. Dr. Gaede will discuss follow-up analysis on Steno-2 data, which looks at the CV effects of an intensive combined pharmacotherapy/behavioral modification approach in patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria. This session also includes a talk by Dr. Guillermo Umpierrez (Emory University, Atlanta, GA) on diabetes and inflammation, a presentation by Dr. Andrew Muir (Duke University, Durham, NC) on the pediatric diabetes population, a talk by Dr. Hans-Ulrich Haring (University of Tübingen, Germany) on phenotypes of prediabetes.
- (9:30-11:30 am) Symposium: Diabetes and CVD. This discussion will be centered around the common risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Several of the talks will focus on obesity, childhood obesity, hypertension, and renal dysfunction as risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In addition, Dr. Anant Nigam (Royal College of Physicians, Glasgow, UK) will address hypoglycemia and increased risk for CV events (especially pertinent in light of recent TECOS sub-analysis demonstrating a potential bidirectional relationship between the two). Dr. Abraham Thomas (Henry Ford Medical Center, Detroit, MI) will also touch on the link between Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and CV morbidity. We’re intrigued by the range of topics that will be covered during this session, all under the umbrella of diabetes and CV disease, which goes to show just how much there is to learn about this particular comorbidity.
- (9:30-11:30 am) Symposium: Prevention of Type 1 Diabetes: Where Do We Stand Today? Dr. Daniel Blumenthal (Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA) will kick-off what’s slated to be an outstanding session on type 1 diabetes prevention. His lecture will review areas of improvement for public health, where more can be done in the realm of preventative medicine, and then will zoom in and offer commentary specific to diabetes prevention. Next up, Dr. David Leslie (University of London, UK) will discuss how type 1 diagnosis differs for children, adolescents, and adults and how drawing these distinctions is important for prevention efforts. We agree that this granularity is so important, especially as we continue to hear advocacy for personalized diabetes care, so we’re greatly looking forward to Dr. Leslie’s talk. Dr. Paolo Pozzilli (University Campus Bio-Medico, Rome, Italy) will follow with an update on primary and secondary type 1 prevention trials (we hope to hear updates on TrialNet’s suite of prevention studies), and Dr. Jason Baker (Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY) will conclude with a presentation on lifestyle interventions for type 1 prevention, leaving time at the end for Q&A will all of these outstanding speakers.
- (12:00-12:30 pm) Joseph Hoet Memorial/Menarini Award Lecture: Prevention of Beta Cell Failure: The Changing Face of Type 1 Diabetes. Dr. Paolo Pozzilli (University Campus Bio-Medico, Rome, Italy) is this year’s recipient of the Menarini Award – a prize given annually at WCPD to recognize a leading contributor to the prevention of diabetes and its complications, in honor of the great endocrinologist and professor Dr. Joseph Hoet. Dr. Pozzilli is a highly-accomplished expert in type 1 diabetes pathogenesis, and has been at the forefront of novel approaches to treatment such as immunotherapy – suffice it to say, we’re thrilled to be attending his award lecture on beta cell preservation in type 1 diabetes.
- (12:30-2:30 pm) Symposium: Nutrition and Diabetes Prevention. Drs. Jaakko Tuomilehto (University of Helsinki, Finland), Robert Eckel (University of Colorado, Denver, CO), Rafael Gabriel Sánchez (Hospital University La Paz, Madrid, Spain), Amy Fischl (University of Chicago, IL), Manon Khazrai (University Campus Bio-Medico, Rome, Italy), and Halit Tanju Besler (Eastern Mediterranean University, Turkey) will discuss the role of diet in diabetes prevention. Highly renowned Dr. Tuomilehto will describe the Baltic diet and opportunities for prevention, while Dr. Sánchez will do the same for a Mediterranean diet. We’re eager to learn more about diabetes in different international populations, as culture is such a central piece of lifestyle and yet is often overlooked in these conversations. We’d also like to better understand what has worked where. We’re looking forward to Dr. Eckel’s talk as well – he’ll focus on low fat diets in the context of diabetes prevention. Dr. Eckel has demonstrated great knowledge of this area, advocating for weight loss interventions starting from the prediabetes stage, and we’re curious to hear his thoughts on the optimal timing for dietary interventions in treating both prediabetes and diagnosed diabetes.
- (12:30-2:30 pm) Symposium: Diabetes and Cancer. This afternoon symposium will be dedicated to the cancer risks associated with hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia and oral agents, insulin therapy, and metformin therapy, with presentations by Drs. Peter Gaede (University of Copenhagen, Denmark), Simon Heller (University of Sheffield, UK), David Leslie (University of London, UK), and Anant Nigam (Royal College of Physicians, Glasgow, UK), respectively. Cancer is an essential comorbidity to consider in selecting optimal diabetes drugs – a point underscored recently at EASD 2016 – and cancer risk is a major variable that sways patient willingness to take different drugs, and so this topic is clearly important for real-world diabetes care. We’re especially looking forward to Dr. Heller’s talk, given his expertise on hypoglycemia, and we’ll also be curious for Dr. Nigam’s perspective on the link between metformin and cancer (some recent studies suggest that metformin could be preventative, while others find no association).
- (12:30-2:30 pm) Symposium: Novel Therapies for Type 1 Diabetes. The outstanding line-up for this session starts off with a debate between Drs. Alan Garber (Harvard University, Boston, MA) and Mick Kumwenda (NHS Trust, North Wales, UK) on SGLT-2 inhibitors in type 1 diabetes treatment. Dr. Garber will argue in favor; Dr. Kumwenda will argue against. Interest in SGLT-2 inhibitors for type 1 patients is on the rise, and in fact, was a major theme at ADA 2016 in New Orleans. We expect Drs. Garber and Kumwenda to address euglycemic DKA risk, an issue that has sparked many conversations in the field. SGLT-2 inhibitors are not yet indicated for type 1 diabetes, which impedes guidelines committees from making recommendations to HCPs. That said, respected thought leaders such as Drs. John Buse and Anne Peters have suggested that while these DKA warnings are very real and must be taken seriously, they can be counterbalanced with patient education and rigorous monitoring (assuming patients have the background and technology necessary). Immediately following this sure-to-be exciting debate, Drs. Simon Heller (University of Sheffield, UK) and Peter Gaede (University of Copenhagen, Denmark) will respectively present the pros and cons of GLP-1 agonists in type 1 diabetes. Novo Nordisk recently shared ADJUNCT ONE and ADJUNCT TWO data for Victoza (liraglutide) in type 1 diabetes at EASD 2016, demonstrating only modest efficacy with worrisome safety signals, contributing to its decision not to pursue a type 1 diabetes indication, but we still have hope that certain sub-populations can benefit from these agents. Dr. Jason Baker will anchor the line-up by arguing for early (at the time of diagnosis) immune intervention to preserve beta cells in type 1 diabetes patients. We hear often about the need for better therapies in type 1 diabetes care, and we have high hopes that this WCPD symposium will offer suggestions for more advanced treatment approaches. We do believe that safety requirements are far greater with many type 1 patients versus type 2 given the narrow therapeutic window of insulin for many type 1 patients – the changes in insulin dosing required when taking “novel drugs” has not received extensive coverage previously and we hope to hear more about such requirements.
- (3:30-5:30 pm) Symposium: Lifestyle and Diabetes. This session will focus on behavior change and physical activity as interventions for prediabetes and diabetes. Dr. Jennifer Rooke (Atlanta Lifestyle Medical Center, GA) will elaborate on the lifestyle interventions that can effectively delay the onset of type 2 diabetes, or in some cases, can even reverse prediabetes. We expect she’ll comment on the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP), which has made headlines recently due to Medicare’s announcement that it will begin reimbursing the DPP in 2018, and due to the AMA’s call to all public and private payers to cover the program. The agenda for this symposium also features Dr. Mick Kumwenda (NHS Trust, North Wales, UK) on glucose homeostasis in muscles, Dr. Darin Olsen (Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Decatur, GA) on how exercise influences liver biology, and Ms. Martha Funnell (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI) on the psychology of behavior change. During a panel discussion at AADE 2016, Ms. Funnell advocated passionately for better patient education and better outreach to enroll more people in the DPP – we’re looking forward to more of her nuanced perspectives on prevention and how to optimally engage individuals in prevention strategies.
- (3:30-5:30 pm) Symposium: Current Technology and Diabetes Prevention. This session will consider the role of social media in diabetes prevention. As social media becomes increasingly prevalent, we’re noticing a greater emphasis on using technology to optimize patient care. We’re particularly excited to hear Dr. Deborah Greenwood (Sutter Health, Sacramento, CA), immediate past president of the AADE, on social media as a tool for health promotion. We also look forward to the talks on mobile health strategies, data science as a way to target specific communities, and how diabetes technology fits into a patient’s lifestyle.
- (3:30-5:30 pm) Symposium: Prevention of Diabetes Complications. Retinopathy, foot ulcers, renal outcomes, hypoglycemia, and cardiovascular outcomes will all be discussed during this symposium on diabetes complications, in that order. We’re excited about the focus on avoiding these conditions after diabetes diagnosis, which is another important, less talked about aspect of prevention. The highly-respected Dr. Stephanie Amiel (King’s College, London, UK) will discuss avoiding hypoglycemia complications – this is so critical, and yet hypoglycemia is rarely considered a quality metric in diabetes practice guidelines. Dr. Abraham Thomas (Henry Ford Medical Center, Detroit, MI) will provide an update on CVOTs, likely covering the SUSTAIN 6 results for Novo Nordisk’s semaglutide (originally presented at EASD 2016) and perhaps commenting on upcoming results from CANVAS for J&J’s Invokana (canagliflozin), to be presented at ADA 2017 in San Diego. Dr. Mick Kumwenda (NHS Trust, North Wales, UK) will discuss renal complications. We’d love to hear his commentary on the renal outcomes from studies like EMPA-REG OUTCOME for Lilly/BI’s SGLT-2 inhibitor Jardiance (empagliflozin) and LEADER for Novo Nordisk’s GLP-1 agonist Victoza (liraglutide); perhaps he’ll mention potential mechanism of renal protection by SGLT-2 inhibitors as well. Also in this session, Dr. Sehnaz Karadeniz (Istanbul Science University, Turkey) will offer a presentation on retinopathy, followed by Dr. Vijay Viswanathan (MV Hospital for Diabetes, London, UK) on the prevention of foot lesions in people with diabetes.
Sunday, December 4
- (9:30-11:30 am) Symposium: The Status of Diabetes Prevention in the United States: From the Risk Factors to Complications. CDC Division of Diabetes Translation director Dr. Ann Albright will headline this session, organized by the CDC, on the latest diabetes prevention efforts in the US. We expect a lot of discussion on the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP), including efficacy in delaying onset of type 2 diabetes and increased reimbursement on the horizon (Medicare plans to cover the program come 2018, while the AMA is also encouraging all public and private payers to reimburse this effective approach). Dr. Edward Gregg (CDC, Atlanta, GA) will present on the epidemiology of diabetes, though he also has terrific expertise in diabetes-related healthcare spending and will hopefully comment on the cost-effectiveness of diabetes prevention. This symposium also features the CDC’s Drs. Mohammed Ali and Karen Siegel, plus time at the end for Q&A with all four speakers – this will be an absolutely fantastic opportunity to learn more about what the CDC is doing on the diabetes prevention front.
- (9:30-11:30 am) Symposium: Prevention Programs. Diabetes prevention experts will provide an update on four different regions around the world: (i) Dr. Mick Kumwenda (NHS Trust, North Wales, UK) will discuss diabetes prevention in Africa; (ii) Dr. Lawrence Phillips (Emory University, Atlanta, GA) will offer his perspective on prevention efforts in the US, particularly the CDC-endorsed National Diabetes Prevention Program; (iii) the highly-esteemed Dr. Jaakko Tuomilehto (University of Helsinki, Finland) will present on the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Program; and Colombia’s Dr. Pablo Aschner Montoya (Javeriana University School of Medicine, Bógata) will review recent diabetes prevention tactics in Latin America. With so many global perspectives in one room, this is bound to be a valuable session, and we’re looking forward to the 15 minutes of Q&A and discussion among panelists at the end. Dr. Toumilehto brings so much prevention expertise to the table, and we’re excited to hear his thoughts on the successes and failures of diabetes prevention in Finland and elsewhere around the globe.
- (12:00-2:00 pm) Symposium: Debate Session. Four pairs of diabetes experts will take opposing sides on various issues related to diabetes care. First, Drs. Mick Kumwenda (NHS Trust, North Wales, UK) and Peter Gaede (University of Copenhagen, Denmark) will sound off on whether or not A1c is an effective screening tool for diabetes, taking the pro and con sides, respectively. Next up, Emory colleagues Drs. Ed Lin (Atlanta, GA) and Peter Thule (Atlanta, GA) will argue in favor and against bariatric surgery as effective obesity intervention, respectively. The third debate will be three-pronged – Dr. Guillermo Umpierrez (Emory University, Atlanta, GA) will advocate for metformin as the best drug for type 2 diabetes, while Dr. Simon Heller (University of Sheffield, UK) will advocate for GLP-1 agonists and Dr. Jason Baker (Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY) will advocate for alpha-glucosidase inhibitors. This latter drug class was touched upon briefly during a recent panel discussion at CMHC 2016, with the main takeaway being that these agents are hardly used in the US but are more popular in ex-US markets, perhaps because of greater tolerance for the GI side-effects or carbohydrate-rich diets. We’re excited to hear Dr. Baker’s rationale for prescribing alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, and to hear competing arguments for different drug classes. Fourth and finally, Dr. Jaakko Toumilehto (University of Helsinki, Finland) will argue that glycemic variability has a significant impact on cardiovascular risk, while Dr. Pablo Aschner Montoya (Javeriana University School of Medicine, Bógata) will argue for no impact.
- (12:00-2:00 pm) Symposium: Diabetes and Oral Health. This session will focus on periodontal disease, and Dr. Evie Lalla (Columbia University, New York, NY) will highlight the importance of provider-dentist collaboration in optimal diabetes care. Other speakers, also from New York’s Columbia University, include Drs. Steven Engebretson and Ryan Demmer. Our interest is piqued for Dr. Demmer’s talk on how periodontal disease could predict diabetes, and how it might be used to identify individuals who would benefit from a dedicated diabetes prevention strategy.
- (3:00-5:00 pm) Symposium: Women with Diabetes and Prediabetes. As one of two concurrent symposia that will bring WCPD 2016 to a close, this session will focus on risk factors for diabetes and related complications specific to females. Dr. Abraham Thomas (Henry Ford Medical Center, Detroit, MI) will unravel results on cardiovascular outcomes, highlighting the differences between male and female patients. Ms. Martha Funnell (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI) will elaborate on gestational diabetes. To date, this is an arena that has not received nearly enough focus and we’d love to see considerably more – Ms. Funnell is highly respected and we look so forward to hearing from her. As well, we look forward to hearing Dr. Jason Baker (Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY) zoom in on the risks to the baby when pregnant women have prediabetes, gestational diabetes, or type 2 diabetes, and will also discuss the increased risk for type 2 diabetes that follows gestational diabetes – this seems an area where far more investment could make an outsized difference in long-term outcomes. Lastly, Dr. Rafael Gabriel Sánchez (Hospital University La Paz, Madrid, Spain) will speak about contraception, hormone replacement therapy, and their unique impact on women living with diabetes.
- (3:00-5:00 pm) Symposium: Global Challenges in Obesity and Prediabetes. It’s only fitting that a conference bringing together so many renowned international experts wraps up with a global emphasis. During this symposium, Drs. Mick Kumwenda (NHS Trust, North Wales, UK), Peter Gaede (University of Copenhagen, Denmark), Pablo Aschner Montoya (Javeriana University School of Medicine, Bógata), Edward Gregg (CDC, Atlanta, GA), and Mahmound Ibrahim (Center for Diabetes Education, Ann Arbor, MI) will discuss obstacles to effective obesity management and prediabetes efforts in Sub-Saharan Africa, Europe, Asia, Latin America, and North America. We expect the main focus will be on society-level public health interventions, and we look forward to haering how different global regions encounter and overcome (if that is the case) different hurdles in the crusade against type 2 diabetes and obesity. Dr. Ibrahim will conclude the session with a presentation on the global burden of obesity – no secret to anyone in this field, but a topic that needs far more public attention, investment, and more creative solutions.
-- by Payal Marathe, Abigail Dove, Helen Gao, and Kelly Close